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Science Daily

Tue, 17 Oct 2017 03:14:01 EDT
Physically active white men at high risk for plaque buildup in arteries
White men who exercise at high levels are 86 percent more likely than people who exercise at low levels to experience a buildup of plaque in the heart arteries by middle age, a new study suggests.
Tweeting rage: How immigration policies can polarize public discourse
A study of tweets in the months before and after the 2010 passage of Arizona's "show me your papers" law, findings showed that the average tweet about Mexican immigrants and Hispanics, in general, became more negative. Researchers said the social media data was useful in determining whether people had changed their attitudes about immigrants as a result of the law or whether they had begun behaving differently.
Clues to the Innate Drug Resistance of a Cocoa-Fermenting Pathogen
At first glance, the yeast Candida krusei seems as innocuous as microbes come: it’s used for fermenting cocoa beans and gives chocolate its pleasant aroma. But it’s increasingly being found as a pathogen in immunocompromised patients — and C. krusei infections aren’t always easy to cure.
Women in science ask fewer questions than men, according to new research
Stereotypes suggest that women love to talk, with some studies even finding that women say three times as much as men. But, new research shows there is an exception to this rule: professional STEM events, which could be indicative of the wider problem of gender inequality in the field.
Brain training shows promise for patients with bipolar disorder
Computerized brain training can result in improved cognitive skills in individuals with bipolar disorder, researchers have discovered for the first time.
Catch a fleeting kilonova
Alerted by the first-ever gravitational waves caused by two neutron stars merging, astronomers detect the resulting optical flash.
Toward efficient high-pressure desalination
One of the biggest operational challenges for desalination plants is the fouling of membranes by microbes. New research suggests a novel approach to reducing the rate of fouling, and thus improving desalination plant efficiency.
Break the attachment before selling your stuff
Ever tried to sell something you've owned for a while on Craigslist and found that no one is willing to pony up what you're asking? It's because you're asking too much.
Chemical treatment improves quantum dot lasers
One of the secrets to making tiny laser devices such as opthalmic surgery scalpels work even more efficiently is the use of tiny semiconductor particles, called quantum dots. In new research the ~nanometer-sized dots are being doctored, or 'doped,' with additional electrons, a treatment that nudges the dots ever closer to producing the desired laser light with less stimulation and energy loss.
Family members play important role in managing chronic illness
Family members often play an important role in managing chronic illnesses, and a family approach may produce more effective, long-term benefits for the patient, according to a researcher.
How many opioid painkillers do surgery patients need? New prescribing recommendations unveiled
Surgeons performing 11 common operations can turn to a free new prescribing tool based on data about how many opioid painkillers patients across Michigan actually took after their operations.
Neutrons observe vitamin B6-dependent enzyme activity useful for drug development
Scientists have performed neutron structural analysis of a vitamin B6-dependent protein, potentially opening avenues for new antibiotics and drugs to battle diseases such as drug-resistant tuberculosis, malaria and diabetes. Specifically, the team used neutron crystallography to study the location of hydrogen atoms in aspartate aminotransferase, or AAT, an enzyme vital to the metabolism of certain amino acids.
Whales and dolphins have rich 'human-like' cultures and societies
Whales and dolphins (cetaceans) live in tightly-knit social groups, have complex relationships, talk to each other and even have regional dialects -- much like human societies. A major new study has linked the complexity of Cetacean culture and behavior to the size of their brains.
Gestational diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk
A history of gestational diabetes was associated with a modest higher long-term risk of cardiovascular disease in women in a new study, although the absolute rate of cardiovascular disease was low in the study's younger group of predominantly white women and adhering to a healthy lifestyle over time appeared to help mitigate the risk, according to a new article.
Auto-fix tool gets more programmers to upgrade code, study finds
Failure to make necessary upgrades to software code can have dire consequences, such as the major data breach at Equifax. A recent study finds that auto-fix tools are effective ways to get programmers to make the relevant upgrades -- if programmers opt to use them.
Seeing the light of neutron star collisions
When two neutron stars collided on Aug. 17, a widespread search for electromagnetic radiation from the event led to observations of light from the afterglow of the explosion, finally connecting a gravitational-wave-producing event with conventional astronomy using light, according to an international team of astronomers.
Bite on this: Alligators actually eat sharks
Jaws, beware! Alligators may be coming for you. A new study documents American alligators on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts are eating small sharks and stingrays. This is the first scientific documentation of a widespread interaction between the two predators.
Marketing study examines what types of searches click for car buyers
A new study examines how consumers allocated their time when searching offline and on the internet as they shopped for a new automobile, and what the outcomes were for price satisfaction.
How cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA
A research team has elucidated the mechanism by which human cells induce inflammation upon detection of cytoplasmic DNA. Notably, the signal network involved differs from that used in the same context in mice.
Childhood poverty, poor support may drive up pregnant woman's biological age
Pregnant women who had low socioeconomic status during childhood and who have poor family social support appear to prematurely age on a cellular level, potentially raising the risk for complications, a new study has found.
Nanoantenna arrays power a new generation of fluorescence-based sensors
Researchers have designed and tested a series of plasmonic nanoantenna arrays that could lead to the development of a new generation of ultrasensitive and low-cost fluorescence sensors that could be used to monitor water quality.
Hubble observes source of gravitational waves for the first time
The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has observed for the first time the source of a gravitational wave, created by the merger of two neutron stars. This merger created a kilonova -- an object predicted by theory decades ago -- that ejects heavy elements such as gold and platinum into space. This event also provides the strongest evidence yet that short duration gamma-ray bursts are caused by mergers of neutron stars.
Nidoviruses redundantly express genes and encode more proteins than previously believed, study finds
Arteriviruses, a family of single-stranded RNA viruses that belongs to the order Nidovirales, produce more proteins and messenger RNAs than previously reported, a finding that provides important insights about a virus that could potentially evolve to infect humans in the future, according to a new research study.
Gravitational waves plus new clues from space reveal new way to make a black hole
For the first time, scientists have detected both gravitational waves and light shooting toward our planet from the birthplace of a new black hole created by the merger of two neutron stars. The discovery marks the beginning of a new era of
Scientists identify biomarker for progression, drug response in brain cancer
Scientists have reported results from a glioblastoma study in which they validated a biomarker indicative of a patient's prognosis and likely response to specific therapies.
Gamma-ray burst detection just what researchers exclusively predicted
More than a month before a game-changing detection of a short gamma-ray burst, scientists predicted such a discovery would occur.
Radio 'eyes' unlocking secrets of neutron-star collision
When a pair of superdense neutron stars collided and potentially formed a black hole in a galaxy 130 million light-years from Earth, they unleashed not only a train of gravitational waves but also an ongoing torrent of radio waves that are answering some of the biggest questions about the nature of such a cataclysmic event.
Astronomers strike cosmic gold, confirm origin of precious metals in neutron star mergers
What many thought would be a long way off, the detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron stars, actually happened on Aug. 17. The observation of a blue and then red glow from the radioactive debris cloud left behind matched simulations of what the merger should look like, proving that such mergers are the source of most of the very heavy elements in the universe, including gold.
Study reveals risk factors for substance use problems, as well as resilience
A new study explores factors increasing the risk for substance use problems among African-American/Black and Latino adults residing in a high-risk urban community, as well as patterns of resilience. It reveals that serious risk factors are highly prevalent and strongly associated with substance misuse; however, a substantial proportion could be characterized as resilient, and evidenced substance use problems at rates comparable to the general U.S. population.
Scientists demonstrate path to linking the genome to healthy tissues, disease
A study has reached a major milestone in establishing a baseline understanding of gene expression across healthy human tissues, and linking genes to disease.
Harvey runoff menaces Texas' coral reefs
The more than 13 trillion gallons of floodwater from Hurricane Harvey have created a massive plume of freshwater in the Gulf of Mexico that is threatening the coral reefs of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary about 100 miles offshore of Galveston.
First observations of merging neutron stars mark a new era in astronomy
After LIGO detected gravitational waves from the merger of two neutron stars, the race was on to detect a visible counterpart, because unlike the colliding black holes responsible for LIGO's four previous detections, this event was expected to produce an explosion of visible light. Researchers have now found the source of the gravitational waves, capturing the first images of the event with the Swope Telescope in Chile.
Fanged kangaroo research could shed light on extinction
Fanged kangaroos -- an extinct family of small fanged Australian kangaroos -- might have survived at least five million years longer than previously thought. A new study has found the species might have competed for resources with ancestors of modern kangaroos.
Cocktail tests on toxic waste called for
Surprisingly low concentrations of toxic chemicals -- from fungicides to antidepressants -- can change the way some aquatic creatures swim and feed, according to new research. In addition, depending on the cocktail of toxins they can produce unexpected results.
Quantum simulator: First functioning component
Hurricanes, traffic jams, demographic development – to predict the effect of such events, computer simulations are required. Many processes in nature, however, are so complicated that conventional computers fail. Quantum simulators may solve this problem. One of the basic phenomena in nature is the interaction between light and matter in photosynthesis. Physicists have now made a big step towards quantum mechanics understanding of plant metabolism.
Blood pressure medication does not completely restore vascular function
Treatments for high blood pressure do not totally reverse its damaging effects on the vascular rhythms that help circulation of the blood say researchers.
Sleep duration may affect the integrity of sperm DNA
A new study found a link between sleep duration and a measure of chromosomal health in sperm. In the study of 2020 semen samples provided by 796 male volunteers from colleges in Chongqing (China) from 2013 to 2015, volunteers with more than 9 hours per day of sleep and those with 6.5 hours or less per day sleep had 41% and 30% lower High DNA Stainability —- an index that represents the proportion of sperm with abnormal chromatin —- than did volunteers with 7 to 7.5 hours per day of sleep.
Germ-free hatching eggs: An alternative to formaldehyde application
Hatching eggs in large-scale hatcheries are currently treated with formaldehyde to eliminate germs. Researchers have now developed a natural alternative.
One in five witness someone collapse who requires CPR but the majority do not act
An estimated one in five adults in the UK witness someone collapse who needs immediate CPR, yet the majority of people do not act, according to new research. Researchers carried out a survey of 2,000 people across the country to find out how likely people are to witness a life-threatening cardiac arrest.
How to save giant tropical fruit bats: Work with local hunters who use bat teeth as money
Flying foxes -- giant fruit bats that look like winged German shepherd puppies -- are in trouble. But scientists suggest a new way to help protect the bats on the Solomon Islands: working with local hunters who use the bats' teeth as currency. The traditional practice, it turns out, is a positive thing for bat conservation.
New exercises help athletes manage dangerous breathing disorder
A novel set of breathing techniques help athletes overcome vocal cord dysfunction and improve performance during high-intensity exercise. Vocal cord dysfunction, now also referred to as exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), has been shown to improve for athletes after being trained to use the new techniques.
New antibiotic resistance genes found
Researchers have found several previously unknown genes that make bacteria resistant to last-resort antibiotics. The genes were found by searching large volumes of bacterial DNA.
Is rushing your child to the ER the right response?
If a child gets a small burn, starts choking or swallows medication, parents may struggle to decide whether to provide first aid at home or rush them to the hospital, suggests a new national poll.
How dopamine tells you it isn't worth the wait
A new study sheds light on how dopamine cells in the brain signal the passage of time.
Inpatient satisfaction improved by five-minute intervention, study finds
As hospitals seek to improve inpatient satisfaction, one effective way takes only a few minutes and no expensive equipment. A study recently found that a daily five-minute conversation that focused on hospitalized patients 'as people' significantly improved their satisfaction with their medical care.
How scientists used NASA data to predict the corona of the Aug. 21 Total Solar Eclipse
When the total solar eclipse swept across the United States on Aug. 21, 2017, NASA satellites captured a diverse set of images from space. But days before the eclipse, some NASA satellites also enabled scientists to predict what the corona -- the Sun's outer atmosphere -- would look like during the eclipse, from the ground. In addition to offering a case study to test our predictive abilities, the predictions also enabled some eclipse scientists to choose their study targets in advance.
MS risk in children spotted with MRI brain scans
By the time multiple sclerosis (MS) is diagnosed in children, it may be difficult to prevent the disabilities and relapses that come with the disease. In a new study, researchers examined MRI brain scans to identify children at high risk of developing MS before symptoms appear, which may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.
Detailed look at 2-D structure of turbulence in tokamaks
A key hurdle for fusion researchers is understanding turbulence, the ripples and eddies that can cause the superhot plasma that fuels fusion reactions to leak heat and particles and keep fusion from taking place. Comprehending and reducing turbulence will facilitate the development of fusion as a safe, clean and abundant source of energy for generating electricity from power plants around the world.
A dietary supplement dampens the brain hyperexcitability seen in seizures or epilepsy
Researchers have found that inducing a biochemical alteration in brain proteins via the dietary supplement glucosamine was able to rapidly dampen that pathological hyperexcitability in rat and mouse models. These results represent a potentially novel therapeutic target for the treatment of seizure disorders, and they show the need to better understand the physiology underlying these neural and brain circuit changes.
Giant sea bass worth more alive as undersea wonders than as commercial catch
An investigation of the different economic values of giant sea bass finds they are worth more alive as undersea wonders than as commercial catch.
Solar research: NASA sounding rocket instrument spots signatures of long-sought small solar flares
Like most solar sounding rockets, the second flight of the FOXSI instrument -- short for Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager -- lasted 15 minutes, with just six minutes of data collection. But in that short time, the cutting-edge instrument found the best evidence to date of a phenomenon scientists have been seeking for years: signatures of tiny solar flares that could help explain the mysterious extreme heating of the Sun's outer atmosphere.
Importance of studying sleep and eating in tandem
A new study offers important insights into possible links between sleep and hunger.
Gutters teem with inconspicuous life
Scientists have shown that Parisian street gutters are oases of microscopic life, home to microalgae, fungi, sponges, and mollusks. Grouped into communities, these microorganisms may help clean rainwater and urban waste by decomposing solid debris and pollutants. A deeper understanding of the role and composition of these communities could help elucidate the services rendered by gutter ecosystems. The researchers' findings are the first to reveal the unsuspected biodiversity of microscopic life in Paris city streets.
'Roadmap' to aid osteoporosis treatment development
Scientists have developed a molecular model that may provide a new framework for improving the design of osteoporosis treatments.
Genetic clues to spinal stenosis
A new study indicates that certain genetic changes are linked with an increased risk of developing lumbar spinal stenosis, a narrowing of the open spaces in the lower spine that can lead to pain in the legs when individuals walk.
Worms reveal secrets of aging
Investigators have identified a new molecular pathway that controls lifespan and healthspan in worms and mammals. Researchers have shown that worms with excess levels of certain proteins lived longer and healthier than normal worms. In addition, mice with excess levels of these proteins demonstrated a delay in blood vessel dysfunction associated with aging. The study has major implications for our understanding of aging and age-associated disorders.
Augmented tongue ultrasound for speech therapy
Researchers have developed a system that can display the movements of our own tongues in real time. These movements are processed by a machine learning algorithm that controls an 'articulatory talking head.' This avatar shows the tongue, palate and teeth, which are usually hidden inside the vocal tract.
Atrazine alters the sex ratio in Blanchard's cricket frogs
A study found that Blanchard's cricket frogs are highly sensitive to atrazine. When exposed, there were up to 55 percent fewer males than females compared with the control group, indicating that atrazine can affect the sex ratio. However, cricket frog populations do persist in areas with widespread atrazine application, despite reports of range contractions for enigmatic reasons.
Astronomers find potential solution into how planets form
The quest to discover how planets found in the far reaches of the universe are born has taken a new, crucial twist.
Surgeries performed later in the day have more complications
A new study finds that patients who undergo a neurosurgical procedure with surgical start times between 9 pm and 7 am are at an increased risk of developing complications compared to patients with a surgical start time earlier in the day.