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Science Daily

Wed, 26 Jun 2019 10:13:01 EDT
Sometimes, a non-invasive procedure will suffice
When a patient complains about chest pain, diagnosis will usually involve catheter angiography to evaluate the adequacy of blood supply to the heart. Researchers have now established that, in certain cases, the diagnostic reliability of non-invasive coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is as good as that of coronary angiography - thereby dispensing with the need for invasive procedures.
Air pollution found to affect marker of female fertility in real-life study
Ovarian reserve, a term widely adopted to reflect the number of resting follicles in the ovary and thus a marker of potential female fertility, has been found in a large-scale study to be adversely affected by high levels of air pollution.
Puppy love: Choosing the perfect pooch poses challenges similar to dating
A psychologists who study relationship choice have found that when it comes to picking a canine companion, what people say they want in a dog isn't always in line with what they choose.
'Flying salt shakers of death:' Fungal-infected 'zombie' cicadas
Cicadas can carry a fungus containing chemicals similar to those found in hallucinogenic mushrooms, making them zombie-like fliers.
Cyanide compounds discovered in meteorites may hold clues to the origin of life
Compounds containing iron, cyanide, and carbon monoxide discovered in carbon-rich meteorites by scientists may have helped power life on early Earth.
These neurons affect how much you do, or don't, want to eat
Researchers have identified a network of neurons that coordinate with other brain regions to influence eating behaviors. These findings could help those suffering from disease-induced appetite loss or over-eating.
Pine woodland restoration creates haven for birds in Midwest
Researchers have shown in a new study that restoration of pine woodlands, through the combined use of intentional, managed fires and strategic thinning of tree density, has a strikingly beneficial effect on a diverse array of birds, some of which are facing sharp declines from human-driven impacts like climate change and habitat loss.
Common antidepressants interact with opioid med to lessen pain relief
Common antidepressants interact with the opioid pain medication tramadol to make it less effective for pain relief, according to a new study. These findings have important implications for the opioid epidemic, suggesting that some patients suspected of drug-seeking may in fact be under-medicated and just are seeking more effective pain relief. They also could help explain why some people exceed the prescribed dose of tramadol, increasing their risk of addiction.
National trash: Reducing waste produced in US national parks
When you think of national parks, you might picture the vast plateaus of the Grand Canyon, the intricate wetlands of the Everglades, or the inspiring viewscapes of the Grand Tetons. You probably don't envision 100 million pounds of mashed water bottles, barbecue-smudged paper plates, and crumpled coffee cups -- but that is the staggering quantity of garbage that is generated in our National Parks each year. And handling that amount of waste is becoming a huge problem.
Algorithm designed to map universe, solve mysteries
Researchers have developed an algorithm designed to visualize models of the universe in order to solve some of physics' greatest mysteries.
Research reveals exotic quantum states in double-layer graphene
Researchers have demonstrated previously unknown states of matter that arise in double-layer stacks of graphene, a two-dimensional nanomaterial. These new states, known as the fractional quantum Hall effect, arise from the complex interactions of electrons both within and across graphene layers.
Conservation efforts for giant South American river turtles have protected 147,000 females
By analyzing records in countries of the Amazon and Orinoco basins -- which include Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador -- researchers categorized 85 past and present initiatives or projects that work to preserve the South American River Turtle, or charapa (Podocnemis expansa), a critically endangered species. These projects are protecting more than 147,000 female turtles across the basin, an unprecedented figure.
Helping physics teachers who don't know physics
A shortage of high school physics teachers has led to teachers with little-to-no training taking over physics classrooms, reports show. This has led to additional stress and job dissatisfaction for those teachers -- and a difficult learning experience for their students. But new research indicates that focused physics professional development for teachers -- even those who have no prior physics training -- can lead to better experiences for both students and teachers, and can improve students' understanding of physics concepts.
Which climates are best for passive cooling technologies?
Researchers recently set out to gain a better understanding of the thermal balance of power plants and surfaces, but quickly realized that they would need to determine what roles cloud cover and relative humidity play in the transparency of the atmosphere to radiatio. The group presents detailed radiative cooling resource maps they created to help determine the best climates for large-scale deployment of passive cooling technologies.
Milk: Best drink to reduce burn from chili peppers
People who order their Buffalo wings especially spicy and sometimes find them to be too 'hot,' should choose milk to reduce the burn, according to researchers, who also suggest it does not matter if it is whole or skim.
Machine learning reveals how strongly interacting electrons behave at atomic level
A team of scientists collaborating across theoretical and experimental physics and computer science, have developed and trained a new Machine Learning (ML) technique, to finally understand how electrons behave in important quantum materials.
A new 'golden' age for electronics?
Scientists have created materials that shrink uniformly in all directions when heated under normal everyday conditions, using a cheap and industrially scalable process. This potentially opens up a new paradigm of thermal-expansion control that will make electronic devices more resilient to temperature changes.
Development of ice controlling tech using pressure
Scientists have succeeded in creating room-temperature ice and controlling its growth behaviors by dynamically compressing water up to pressures above 10,000 atmospheres.
A further step towards reliable quantum computation
A team of physicists introduces a novel technique to detect entanglement even in large-scale quantum systems with unprecedented efficiency. This brings scientists one step closer to the implementation of reliable quantum computation. The new results are of direct relevance for future generations of quantum devices.
Cholesterol medication could invite diabetes, study suggests
A study of thousands of patients' health records found that those who were prescribed cholesterol-lowering statins had at least double the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detailed analysis of health records and other data from patients in a private insurance plan in the Midwest provides a real-world picture of how efforts to reduce heart disease may be contributing to another major medical concern.
Conceptual model can explain how thunderstorm clouds bunch together
Understanding how the weather and climate change is one of the most important challenges in science today. A new theoretical study presents a new mechanism for the self-aggregation of storm clouds, a phenomenon, by which storm clouds bunch together in dense clusters. The researcher used methods from complexity science, and applied them to formerly established research in meteorology on the behavior of thunderstorm clouds.
Video games offer clues to help curb animal disease outbreaks
As Asia and Europe battle African swine fever outbreaks, new research shows how farmers' risk attitudes affect the spread of infectious animal diseases and offers a first-of-its kind model for testing disease control and prevention strategies. Getting just 10% of risk tolerant farmers to adopt biosecurity measures resulted in a significant reduction of disease, but keeping the disease under control required at least 40% of risk-takers to change their behaviors.
Power of simple physical models for complex protein machines
The function of protein machines in biological cells is so complex that even supercomputers cannot predict their cycles at atomic detail. But many aspects of their operation at mesoscales can be already revealed by exploring simple mechanical models, amenable for simulations on common computers. The authors now show how artificial protein-like structures with machine properties can be designed.
How dung beetles know where to roll their dung balls
When the South African dung beetle rolls its dung ball through the savannah, it must know the way as precisely as possible. Scientists have now discovered that it does not orient itself solely on the position of the sun.
Lifelong ill-health after exposure to chemical weapons
People exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWAs) often incur chronic damage to their lungs, skin and eyes, for example. They also frequently succumb to depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts. This is shown by research on survivors from the 1988 gas attacks against Kurdish Halabja in Iraq.
How octopus arms make decisions
Researchers studying the behavior and neuroscience of octopuses have long suspected that the animals' arms may have minds of their own. A new model is the first attempt at a comprehensive representation of information flow between the octopus's suckers, arms and brain, based on previous research in octopus neuroscience and behavior, and new video observations conducted in the lab.
Women exposed to common antibacterial chemical more likely to break a bone
Women exposed to triclosan are more likely to develop osteoporosis, according to a new study.
Babies can learn link between language and ethnicity, study suggests
Eleven-month-old infants can learn to associate the language they hear with ethnicity, recent research suggests. Eleven-month-old infants looked more at the faces of people of Asian descent versus those of Caucasian descent when hearing Cantonese versus English -- but not when hearing Spanish.
Remote-controlled drug delivery implant size of grape may help chronic disease management
People with chronic diseases like arthritis, diabetes and heart disease may one day forego the daily regimen of pills and, instead, receive a scheduled dosage of medication through a grape-sized implant that is remotely controlled.
How icy outer solar system satellites may have formed
Beyond the orbit of the planet Neptune, there are a multitude of icy and rocky small bodies, smaller than planets but larger than comets. These likely formed at the same time as the Solar System, and understanding their origin could provide important clues as to how the entire Solar System originated. Using sophisticated computer simulations and observations of TNOs, astronomers have shown how these so-called trans-Neptunian Objects (or TNOs) may have formed.
Astronomy bot speeds up search for Jupiter's twins
Astronomers have a new tool in their search for extraterrestrial life -- a sophisticated bot that helps identify stars hosting planets similar to Jupiter and Saturn.
How the dragon got its frill
The frilled dragon exhibits a distinctive large erectile ruff. Researchers report that an ancestral embryonic gill of the dragon embryo turns into a neck pocket that expands and folds, forming the frill. They demonstrate that this robust folding pattern emerges from mechanical forces during the homogeneous growth of the frill skin, due to the tensions resulting from its attachment to the neck and head.
Scientists closer to unraveling mechanisms of speech processing in the brain
A new study that sheds light on how the brain processes language could lead to a better understanding of autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental conditions.
Artificial intelligence could be 'game changer' in detecting, managing Alzheimer's disease
Could artificial intelligence be the solution for detecting and managing a complex condition like Alzheimer's disease? A team of researchers thinks so. They employed a novel application of supervised machine learning and predictive modeling to demonstrate and validate the cross-sectional utility of MemTrax as a clinical decision support screening tool for assessing cognitive impairment. They introduce supervised machine learning as a new approach and value-added complementary tool in cognitive brain health assessment and related patient care and management.
Sugary drink taxes reduce consumption, major review shows
A 10 per cent tax on sugary drinks has cut the purchase and consumption of sugary drinks by an average of 10 per cent in places it has been introduced, a just published major review has found.
Better care needed for people displaying first symptoms of bipolar disorder
Better care and more research into treatments for people experiencing a first manic episode are urgently needed, according to researchers. The study describes patchy and inconsistent care, widespread failure to detect bipolar disorder early enough, and a lack of guidance on how to treat people experiencing mania for the first time.
Chronic conditions -- not infectious diseases -- are top 5 causes of early death in China
Chronic diseases, such as stroke, ischemic heart disease, and lung cancer, now represent the leading causes of premature death in China, according to a new scientific study. The rise in non-communicable diseases reflects declines in maternal and child mortality over nearly three decades, largely the result of economic growth and increasing levels of education. In addition, China has instituted national programs targeting infectious diseases.
Crop pests more widespread than previously known
Insects and diseases that damage crops are probably present in many places thought to be free of them, new research shows.
Fake news 'vaccine' works: 'Pre-bunking' game reduces susceptibility to disinformation
Study of thousands of players shows a simple online game works like a 'vaccine,' increasing skepticism of fake news by giving people a 'weak dose' of the methods behind disinformation.
Why money cannot 'buy' housework
If a man is handy with the vacuum cleaner, isn't averse to rustling up a lush family meal most nights after he's put on the washing machine having popped into the supermarket on his way home then it's more than likely his partner will have her own bank account. A new study reveals the way in which couples manage their money tells 'a tale of two marriages' in the UK today.
Ant farmers boost plant nutrition
Research has demonstrated that millions of years of ant agriculture has remodeled plant physiology. Farming ants deposit nitrogen-rich feces directly inside plants, which has led to the evolution of these ultra-absorptive plant structures.
A new theory for trapping light particles aims to advance development of quantum computers
Researchers have developed a new protocol for ensuring the stability of data when photons are stored for extended periods of time. The theory could advance development of quantum computers.
Applying the Goldilocks principle to DNA structure
Inspired by ideas from the physics of phase transitions and polymer physics, researchers set out to determine the organization of DNA inside the nucleus of a living cell. Their findings suggest that the phase state of the genomic DNA is 'just right' -- a gel poised at the phase boundary between gel and sol, the solid-liquid phase transition.
How trees affect the weather
New research find that some plants and trees are prolific spendthrifts in drought conditions -- 'spending' precious soil water to cool themselves and, in the process, making droughts more intense.
Settling the debate on serotonin's role in sleep
New research finds that serotonin is necessary for sleep, settling a long-standing controversy.
Tapping into the way cells communicate
For the first time, scientists can record cells communicating in real time, opening the floodgates for new developments in cell therapy and other areas within cell biology.
Playing 'tag': Tracking movement of young oysters
A new publication investigates the use of a fluorescent dye to track movements of young oysters. The publication provides new knowledge on methods for tracking oysters in low salinity environments common to coastal waters, particularly in the northern Gulf of Mexico.
Interim scan during prostate cancer therapy helps guide treatment
New prostate cancer research shows that adding an interim scan during therapy can help guide a patient's treatment. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after two cycles of lutetium-177 (177Lu)-PSMA radioligand therapy has shown a significant predictive value for patient survival.
Tropical soil disturbance could be hidden source of CO2
Researchers working in the Democratic Republic of the Congo found a link between the churning of deep soils during deforestation and the release of carbon dioxide through streams and rivers.
Americans overestimate income for children from wealthy families
Americans overestimate the future income for children from wealthy and middle-income families, but underestimate that for children from poor ones, finds a new study.
Big city growth escalates the urban-rural divide
Microdata from Swedish population registers provide new insights into cities' economic growth paths. The data reveal a surge in regional inequality, with more and more resources flowing to cities atop the urban hierarchy, which thus acquire an increasing share of national wealth.
Researchers create multi-junction solar cells from off-the-shelf components
In a proof-of-concept paper, researchers detail a new approach for creating multi-junction solar cells using off-the-shelf components, resulting in lower cost, high-efficiency solar cells for use in multiple applications.
Monarch butterflies bred in captivity may lose the ability to migrate, study finds
Monarch butterflies purchased from a commercial breeder did not fly in a southward direction, even in offspring raised outdoors, in a new study.
Engineering enzymes to turn plant waste into sustainable products
A new family of enzymes has been engineered to perform one of the most important steps in the conversion of plant waste into sustainable and high-value products such as nylon, plastics and chemicals.
Visible light from 2D lead halide perovskites explained
Electrical engineers have reported solving a lingering question about how a two-dimensional crystal composed of cesium, lead and bromine emitted a strong green light, opening the door to designing better light-emitting and diagnostic devices.
Gene networks reveal transition from healthy to failing heart
Researchers have created one of the first maps to reveal gene activity and connectivity as the heart shuts down.
Understanding brain activity when you name what you see
Using complex statistical methods and fast measurement techniques, researchers found how the brain network comes up with the right word and enables us to say it.
Does limited underground water storage make plants less susceptible to drought?
By tracking water flow through different environments in California, researchers have discovered a secret to the surprising resilience of Mediterranean plant communities during drought years. These plants do well during droughts because they are adapted to living with limited underground water storage even in very wet years. Rock moisture, or lack of it, is the key, and may help predict the fate of other California plant communities in the face of climate change.
People prefer to donate time -- even when charities lose out
Each year during the holiday season, soup kitchens and charities alike are flooded with offers to volunteer. But is a donation of your time most beneficial to the charity, or would a financial contribution provide more value? Researchers wondered what drives volunteering -- especially when a monetary donation would have more impact.
Big data says food is too sweet
New research analyzed nearly 400,000 food reviews posted by Amazon customers to gain real-world insight into the food choices that people make. The findings reveal that many people find the foods in today's marketplace to be too sweet.