x Web Search Image Search News Center Travel About Us Contact Us Privacy Policy

NEWS Source

Science Daily

Thu, 22 Aug 2019 09:23:01 EDT
Physical activity at any intensity linked to lower risk of early death
Clear evidence that higher levels of physical activity -- regardless of intensity -- are associated with a lower risk of early death in middle aged and older people.
Omega-3 fats have little or no effect on type 2 diabetes
Increasing omega-3 fats in the diet has little or no effect on risk of type 2 diabetes.
China's two-child policy has led to 5.4 million extra births
The introduction of China's universal two-child policy, that permits all couples to have two children, has led to an extra 5.4 million births, finds a new study.
New technique could streamline design of intricate fusion device
Stellarators, twisty machines that house fusion reactions, rely on complex magnetic coils that are challenging to design and build. Now, a physicist has developed a mathematical technique to help simplify the design of the coils.
Scientists propose network of imaging centers to drive innovation in biological research
When sparks fly to innovate new technologies for imaging life at the microscopic scale, often diverse researchers are nudging each other with a kind of collegial one-upmanship.
Parasite needs chemical (lipid/nutrient) in cat intestines for sex
Toxoplasma gondii is a microbial parasite that infects humans and but needs cats to complete its full life cycle. New research shows why: the sexual phase of the parasite's life cycle requires linoleic acid, a nutrient/lipid found at uniquely high levels in the felines, because cats lack a key enzyme for breaking it down.
Air pollution linked to risk of premature death
A new international study has found that air pollution is linked to increased cardiovascular and respiratory death rates. The study is the largest of its kind to investigate the short-term impacts of air pollution on death, conducted over a 30-year period. The study analyzed data on air pollution and mortality in 24 countries and regions.
New pharmaceutical target reverses osteoporosis in mice
Biomedical engineers have discovered that an adenosine receptor called A2B can be pharmaceutically activated to reverse bone degradation caused by osteoporosis in mouse models of the disease.
Understanding the animal brain could help robots wash your dishes
Neuroscientists show how evolution and animal brains can be a rich source of inspiration for machine learning, especially to help AI tackle some enormously difficult problems, like doing the dishes.
Health records pin broad set of health risks on genetic premutation
Researchers have found that there may be a much broader health risk to carriers of the FMR1 premutation, with potentially dozens of clinical conditions that can be ascribed directly to carrying it. The researchers employed machine learning to mine decades of electronic health records of nearly 20,000 individuals.
Shift to more intense rains threatens historic Italian winery
Wine lovers may appreciate a dry white, but a lack of steady rainfall brought on by a changing climate is threatening a centuries old winemaking tradition in Italy, according to an international team of scientists.
Scientists probe how distinct liquid organelles in cells are created
One way biological compounds inside cells stay organized is through membrane-less organelles (MLOs) -- wall-less liquid droplets made from proteins and RNA that clump together and stay separate from the rest of the cellular stew. Scientists report that MLOs may be highly sensitive to the level of divalent cations inside cells. This matters because divalent calcium and magnesium ions aid in cellular signaling and are vital to life.
Most patients willing to share medical records for research purposes
Researchers report most patients are willing to share medical records for research purposes, with a few caveats.
Protein-transport discovery may help define new strategies for treating eye disease
Many forms of vision loss stem from a common source: impaired communication between the eye and the brain. And at the root of that communication are hundreds of proteins generated by the retina's nerve cells. A new study examines these proteins in unprecedented detail, providing surprising new insights into how visual signals are distributed to different regions of the brain.
New pathway for potential glioblastoma treatment
A team has discovered a new pathway that may help suppress the development of glioblastoma tumors, one of the deadliest forms of cancer.
Lower back pain? Self-administered acupressure could help
A recent study found that people with chronic lower back pain who performed self-administered acupressure experienced improvement in pain and fatigue symptoms.
Scientists discover the basics of how pressure-sensing Piezo proteins work
Scientists have illuminated the basic mechanism of Piezo proteins, which function as sensors in the body for mechanical stimuli such as touch, bladder fullness, and blood pressure. The discovery is a feat of basic science that also opens up many new paths of investigation into the roles of Piezo proteins in human diseases and potential new therapeutic strategies.
Meaningful PTSD symptom decrease may lower type 2 diabetes risk
Research finds treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) that leads to an improvement in symptoms was associated with a 49 percent lower risk of incident type 2 diabetes.
Scientists unlock secrets of maternal/fetal cellular communication during pregnancy
Researchers have unlocked mysteries surrounding how a pregnant mother's cells and her fetus' cells communicate throughout pregnancy. With this new information, scientists can develop new non-invasive methods of monitoring and improving the health of the fetus using this mode of communication.
Ocean temperatures turbocharge April tornadoes over Great Plains region
Do climate shifts influence tornados over North America? New research found that Pacific and Atlantic ocean temperatures in April can influence large-scale weather patterns as well as the frequency of tornadoes over the Great Plains region.
Earliest evidence of artificial cranial deformation in Croatia during 5th-6th century
People in Croatia during the 5th to 6th centuries may have used cranial modifications to indicate their cultural affiliations, according to a new study.
Nordic Bronze Age attracted wide variety of migrants to Denmark
Migration patterns in present-day Denmark shifted at the beginning of the Nordic Bronze Age, according to a new study. Migrants appear to have come from varied and potentially distant locations during a period of unprecedented economic growth in southern Scandinavia in the 2nd millennium BC.
New cyclization reactions for synthesizing macrocyclic drug leads
Scientists have developed a new method to synthesize and screen thousands of macrocyclic compounds, a family of chemicals that are of great interest in the pharmaceutical industry.
Can pomegranate juice protect the infant brain?
In ongoing investigations, clinical researchers are exploring whether pomegranate juice intake during pregnancy can have a protective effect.
Separate polarization and brightness channels give crabs the edge over predators
Fiddler crabs see the polarization of light and this gives them the edge when it comes to spotting potentials threats, such as a rival crab or a predator. Now researchers have begun to unravel how this information is processed within the crab's brain. The study has discovered that when detecting approaching objects, fiddler crabs separate polarization and brightness information.
20-million-year-old skull suggests complex brain evolution in monkeys, apes
New research on one of the oldest and most complete fossil primate skulls from South America shows instead that the pattern of brain evolution in this group was far more checkered. The study suggests that the brain enlarged repeatedly and independently over the course of anthropoid history.
Self-folding 'Rollbot' paves the way for fully untethered soft robots
The majority of soft robots today rely on external power and control, keeping them tethered to off-board systems or rigged with hard components. Now, researchers have developed soft robotic systems, inspired by origami, that can move and change shape in response to external stimuli, paving the way for fully untethered soft robots.
Nearly 1/3 of migrants through Mexico to US experience significant violence during journey
Almost one-third of people migrating to the US via Mexico experience physical, psychological, and/or sexual violence along the way, according to a new study.
First of its kind mapping model tracks how hate spreads and adapts online
Researchers have developed a mapping model, the first of its kind, to track how hate spreads online.
Extreme wildfires threaten to turn boreal forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources
A research team investigated the impact of extreme fires on previously intact carbon stores by studying the soil and vegetation of the boreal forest and how they changed after a record-setting fire season in the Northwest Territories in 2014. They collected 200 soil samples and used radiocarbon dating to estimate the carbon age. They found combustion of legacy carbon in nearly half of the samples taken from young forests (less than 60 years old).
Electrons in high temperature superconductors may not obey the normal rules of pairing
Physicists used to think that superconductivity -- electricity flowing without resistance or loss -- was an all or nothing phenomenon. But new evidence suggests that, at least in copper oxide superconductors, it's not so clear cut. Researchers observed electrons in these materials traveling in coherent pairs, a hallmark of superconductivity, at much higher temperatures than those at which the material superconducts. The observation constrains condensed matter theory, and may give clues to practical high-temperature conductors.
Studying quantum phenomena in magnetic systems to understand exotic states of matter
Scientists unify condensed matter physics and quantum physics by experimentally characterizing magnetism-related quantum phenomena in Ba2CoSi2O6Cl2.
Improved functional near infrared spectroscopy enables enhanced brain imaging
Researchers demonstrate critical improvements to functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based optical imaging in the brain.
Main culprit behind lithium metal battery failure
Researchers have discovered the root cause of why lithium metal batteries fail -- bits of lithium metal deposits break off from the surface of the anode during discharging and are trapped as 'dead' lithium that the battery can no longer cycle. The discovery challenges a long-held belief in the field about lithium metal battery failure. The study presents new ways to boost battery performance, bringing research a step closer to incorporating lithium anodes into rechargeable batteries.
Highest-resolution human brain 'parts list' to date lays road map to better treatments
A new study has written the most detailed 'parts list' of the human brain to date. This categorization of our brain cell types lays the groundwork to improve our understanding of our own brains and to dramatically change how we treat human brain diseases and disorders.
Why brown fat is good for people's health
Scientists have discovered how brown fat, also known as brown adipose tissue, may help protect against obesity and diabetes. Their study adds to our knowledge about the role of brown fat in human health and could lead to new medications for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Researchers convert pro-tumor macrophages into cancer killers
Researchers identified a new therapeutic approach in mouse models that halts drug resistance and cancer progression by using an antibody that induces the immune system via macrophages to seek and kill cancer cells.
Cannabis flower is an effective mid-level analgesic medication for pain
Using the largest database of real-time recordings of the effects of common and commercially available cannabis products in the United States, researchers found strong evidence that cannabis can significantly alleviate pain, with the average user experiencing a three-point drop in pain suffering on a 0-10 point scale immediately following cannabis consumption.
Babbling babies' behavior changes parents' speech
New research shows baby babbling changes the way parents speak to their infants, suggesting that infants are shaping their own learning environments.
Physicists create world's smallest engine
The research explains how random fluctuations affect the operation of microscopic machines like this tiny motor. In the future, such devices could be incorporated into other technologies to recycle waste heat and thus improve energy efficiency.
In cystic fibrosis, lungs feed deadly bacteria
A steady supply of its favorite food helps a deadly bacterium thrive in the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, according to a new study.
Real-time fMRI treats Tourette Syndrome
Characterized by repetitive movements or vocalizations known as tics, Tourette Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that plagues many adolescents. A study has now trained adolescents with Tourette Syndrome to control their tics through an imaging technique that allows patients to monitor the function of their own brain in real time.
Hazardous patterns of prescription opioid misuse in the US
Among adults aged 18 years and older, 31 percent used prescription opioids only as prescribed by a physician medically and 4 percent misused them. Thus, the overwhelming majority (88 percent) of all past-12-month prescription opioid users used the drugs for medical purposes only.
Why initial UTIs increase susceptibility to further infection
Researchers have discovered that an initial UTI can set the tone for subsequent infections. In mouse studies, the researchers found that a transient infection triggers a short-lived inflammatory response that rapidly eliminates the bacteria. But a lingering infection leads to persistent inflammation and long-lasting changes to the bladder that prime the immune system to overreact to bacteria the next time, worsening the infection.
Hush, baby -- the dog is whimpering!
We are all familiar with the sounds of a cat or dog vying for human attention, and for pet-owners, these sounds are particularly evocative. Dog sounds are especially sad to both cat and dog owners, who actually rate a whimpering dog as sounding as sad as a crying baby.
Patient charges mean young people visit doctor less
When young adults pass the age limit for paying patient co-payments, or out-of-pocket prices, their medical consultations in primary care decrease by 7 percent, a study shows. The groups affected most are women and low-income earners.
Spaceflight consistently affects the gut
A new study discovered that spaceflight -- both aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS) -- has a consistent effect on the gut microbiome.
Forecasting dusty conditions months in advance
A researcher has developed an advanced technique for forecasting dusty conditions months before they occur, promising transportation managers, climatologists and people suffering health issues much more time to prepare for dusty conditions.
New way to make micro-sensors may revolutionize future of electronics
Researchers have found a way to improve the performance of tiny sensors that could have wide-reaching implications for electronic devices we use every day.
New brain map could improve AI algorithms for machine vision
Neuroscientists have published an updated view on the primate brain's visual system organization. They found that parts of the primate visual system may work differently than previously thought.
Color-changing artificial 'chameleon skin' powered by nanomachines
Researchers have developed artificial 'chameleon skin' that changes color when exposed to light and could be used in applications such as active camouflage and large-scale dynamic displays.
New evidence highlights growing urban water crisis
New research has found that in 15 major cities in the global south, almost half of all households lack access to piped utility water, affecting more than 50 million people.
Is it autism? The line is getting increasingly blurry
If the current trend in diagnostic practices holds, the definition of autism may get too blurry to be meaningful, a research team finds.
Texas cities increasingly susceptible to large measles outbreaks
The growing number of children arriving at Texas schools unvaccinated makes the state increasingly vulnerable to measles outbreaks in cities large and small, according to a computer simulation. The findings indicate that a 5% further decrease in vaccination rates that have been on a downward trend since 2003 would increase the size of a potential measles outbreak by up to 4,000% in some communities.
Tomography: Synchrotron radiation can be used to watch how metal foam forms
An international research team has set a new tomography world record using a rotary sample table. With 208 three-dimensional tomographic X-ray images per second, they were able to document the dynamic processes involved in the foaming of liquid aluminum.
Environmental DNA proves the expansion of invasive crayfish habitats
Environmental DNA (eDNA) has successfully proven the presence of invasive crayfish in almost all the small streams around Lake Akan in Japan, suggesting that eDNA analysis is an efficient and highly sensitive method to assess the distribution of aquatic organisms.
What factors influence how antibiotics are accessed and used in less well-off countries
It is often assumed that people use antibiotics inappropriately because they don't understand enough about the spread of drug resistant superbugs. A new study challenges this view. The study reveals that basic understanding of drug resistance is in fact widespread in Southeast Asia but that higher levels of awareness are linked to higher antibiotic use in the general population.
'Kissing loops' in RNA molecule essential for its role in tumor suppression
Researchers have discovered that the tumor suppressor MEG3 adopts a complex three-dimensional structure to fulfill its function. Furthermore, they were able to fine-tune its activity by targeted manipulation of this architecture. The results of this study might help to advance diagnosis and treatment of certain types of cancer.
A serious mental disorder in one's youth can have a lasting impact on employment prospects
Mental disorders experienced in adolescence and early adulthood that require hospital care are connected with low income, poor education and unemployment over the life span of individuals.
Music charts are increasingly short-lived
Cultural processes are increasingly short-lived, showing in addition a growing tendency toward self-organization. As a result, success is now governed by a universal law. This was discovered by the physicists after studying 50 years of music charts.