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Science Daily

Fri, 24 Jan 2020 15:03:01 EST
Scientists capture molecular maps of animal tissue with unprecedented detail
Scientists have refined a technique called mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) that translates reams of data into detailed visuals of the molecular makeup of biological samples. Their work features images with mass resolution so high that every color in the image represents a distinct kind of molecule.
Novel Coronavirus that recently emerged in China
The new cluster of viral pneumonia cases originating in Wuhan, China, marks the third time in 20 years that a member of the large family of coronaviruses (CoVs) has jumped from animals to humans and sparked an outbreak.
Weight loss and health improvements with Mediterranean, fasting & Paleo diets
There were some weight loss and health benefits for overweight adults who followed the Mediterranean, Intermittent Fasting and Paleo diets, though adherence to the diets dropped off considerably during the one-year study, new research shows.
Mystery of Grand Canyon's water supply
Researchers looked at how scientists model the vulnerability of karst formations around the Grand Canyon. They then created a new model that can give land and water managers more information so they can better protect the water system.
Living near major roads linked to risk of dementia, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and MS
Living near major roads or highways is linked to higher incidence of dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS), suggests new research.
High-protein diets boost artery-clogging plaque, mouse study shows
High-protein diets may help people lose weight and build muscle, but a new study in mice suggests they have a down side: They lead to more plaque in the arteries. Further, the new research shows that high-protein diets spur unstable plaque -- the kind most prone to rupturing and causing blocked arteries. More plaque buildup in the arteries, particularly if it's unstable, increases the risk of heart attack.
Predictive touch response mechanism is a step toward a tactile internet
A team of researchers has developed a method for enhancing haptic feedback experiences in human-to-machine applications that are typical in the Tactile Internet.
Microchip capability expanded ewith new 3D inductor technology
Smaller is better when it comes to microchips, researchers said, and by using 3D components on a standardized 2D microchip manufacturing platform, developers can use up to 100 times less chip space. A team of engineers has boosted the performance of its previously developed 3D inductor technology by adding as much as three orders of magnitudes more induction to meet the performance demands of modern electronic devices.
2018's Four Corners drought directly linked to human-caused climate change
The western United States has experienced such intense droughts over the past decade that technical descriptions are becoming inadequate. In many places, conditions are rocketing past "severe," through "extreme," all the way to "exceptional drought."
Mapping the cumulative health effects of environmental exposures
The genomics revolution has provided powerful insights into genetic risk factors for human disease while also revealing the limits of genetic determinants, which account for only a fraction of total disease risk. A new article argues that a similar large-scale effort is needed to ensure a more complete picture of disease risk by accounting for the exposome, defined as our cumulative exposure to environmental agents such as chemical pollutants.
Acetone plus light creates a green jet fuel additive
Take biomass-derived acetone -- common nail polish remover -- use light to upgrade it to higher-mass hydrocarbons, and, voila, you have a domestically generated product that can be blended with conventional jet fuel to fly while providing environmental benefits, creating domestic jobs, securing the nation's global leadership in bioenergy technologies, and improving U.S. energy security.
Facial paralysis stigma takes emotional toll, especially when acquired later in life
People with facial paralysis are more likely to face depression and anxiety than the general population, especially if the paralysis occurs later in life rather than at birth, according to a recent study.
Sharp increase in Ningaloo whale shark injuries might be due to boat encounters
Almost one-fifth of the whale sharks (Rhincodon typus) in Western Australia's Ningaloo Reef Marine Park show major scarring or fin amputations, with the number of injured animals increasing in recent years, new research reveals.
Astronomers detect large amounts of oxygen in ancient star's atmosphere
Astronomers have detected large amounts of oxygen in the atmosphere of one of the oldest and most elementally depleted stars known -- a 'primitive star' scientists call J0815+4729. This new finding provides an important clue on how oxygen and other important elements were produced in the first generations of stars in the universe.
Engineered capillaries model traffic in tiny blood vessels
3D microvessels have been created to observe how red blood cells transit ultra-small blood vessels. They squeeze single-file through microvessels to bring oxygen and nutrients. Red cells burdened with malaria stall, blocking the blood vessel. The platform is expected to have other uses in studies of how microvascular damage occurs in diabetes and sickle cell anemia. They might be further developed to supply blood circulation to organ repair patches or to 3D printed transplants.
Jewel beetles' sparkle helps them hide in plain sight
Bright colors are often considered an evolutionary tradeoff in the animal kingdom. Yes, a male peacock's colorful feathers may help it attract a mate, but they also make it more likely to be seen by a predator. Jewel beetles and their iridescent wing cases may be an exception to the rule, researchers report. They found that the insects' bright colors can act as a form of camouflage.
Snake stem cells used to create venom-producing organoids
Organoids have become an important tool for studying many disease processes and testing potential drugs. Now, they are being used in a surprising and unexpected way: for the production of snake venom. Researchers are reporting that they have created organoids of the venom glands of the Cape coral snake (Aspidelaps lubricus cowlesi) and that these glands are capable of producing venom.
A Zika vaccine could save suffering and costs
A new study found that routinely giving the Zika vaccine to women of childbearing age could save money if the risk of Zika is around that of other mosquito-borne diseases like dengue and chikungunya.
A new blood component revealed
Does the blood we thought to know so well contain elements that had been undetectable until now? The answer is yes, according to a team of researchers which has revealed the presence of whole functional mitochondria in the blood circulation. The discovery may deepen our knowledge of physiology and open up new avenues for treatment.
New experimental vaccine for African swine fever virus shows promise
Government and academic investigators have developed a vaccine against African swine fever that appears to be far more effective than previously developed vaccines.
New understanding of condensation could lead to better power plant condenser, de-icing materials
For decades, it's been understood that water repellency is needed for surfaces to shed condensation buildup - like the droplets of water that form in power plant condensers to reduce pressure. New research shows that the necessity of water repellency is unclear and that the slipperiness between the droplets and solid surface appears to be more critical to the clearing of condensation. This development has implications for the costs associated with power generation and technologies like de-icing surfaces for power lines and aircraft.
Mechanism for how common gene therapy vectors enter cells
Researchers have identified a novel cellular entry factor for adeno-associated virus vector (AAV) types -- the most commonly used viral vectors for in vivo gene therapy. The researchers identified that GPR108, a G protein-coupled receptor, served as a molecular 'lock' to the cell. The discovery could one day enable scientists to better direct AAV gene transfers to specific tissues.
Missing link in mechanisms underlying fight-or-flight response
We've all felt the effects of an adrenaline rush. Faced with danger, real or perceived, the heart beats faster, breathing quickens and muscles tighten as the body prepares to fight a threat or flee from it.
Evidence to explain behavior of slow earthquakes
A team of researchers has made an important breakthrough that will help better understand the origin and behavior of slow earthquakes. Their work presents unprecedented evidence that slow earthquakes are related to dynamic fluid processes at the boundary between tectonic plates. These slow earthquakes are quite complex, and many theoretical models of slow earthquakes require the pressure of these fluids to fluctuate during an earthquake cycle.
Quantum experiments explore power of light for communications, computing
Quantum researchers have conducted a series of experiments to gain a better understanding of quantum mechanics and pursue advances in quantum networking and quantum computing, which could lead to practical applications in cybersecurity and other areas.
More autonomy at work reduces the risk of low back pain
A team of psychologists has carried out a meta-analysis to identify psychosocial work factors that pose a risk for the development of chronic low back pain (CLBP). Their study clearly indicates that not only physical but also psychological and social factors exert considerable influence on the development of the disease.
Bilingual language program for babies: online training for teachers
A study shows that a bilingual language program for babies can reach more families, and instructors, through online training for teachers.
Will the future's super batteries be made of seawater?
The race is on to develop even more efficient and rechargable batteries for the future. One promising option is to make batteries based on sodium, which is found in abundance in seawater.
Taking aim at gastric cancer
A novel drug, named 'FerriIridium,' can simultaneously help diagnose and treat gastric cancer. The initially weakly active precursor (prodrug), based on an iridium-containing compound, is selectively activated only after reaching the interior of a tumor cell. This is possible because of the higher amount of iron present there, report scientists. Selective activation reduces undesired side effects.
Two-drug combo halts the growth of cancer cells
Researchers have discovered a two-drug combo that halts the growth of cancer cells that carry HER2 mutations.
Skin-to-skin contact do not improve interaction between mother and preterm infant
Following a premature birth it is important that the parents and the infant quickly establish a good relationship. Researchers have studied the relationship between mothers and infants who have continuous skin-to-skin contact during the entire period from birth to discharge from the hospital. The results show that continuous skin-to-skin contact does not lead to better interaction between the mother and the infant.
Hot flashes impair memory performance
If you're having difficulty identifying the right word to express yourself clearly or remembering a story correctly, you may blame menopause. A new study suggests that physiologic hot flashes are associated with decreased verbal memory and with alterations in brain function during encoding and retrieval of memory, especially in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.
Portable device helps doctors diagnose sepsis faster
Researchers have developed a highly sensitive and portable optical biosensor that stands to accelerate the diagnosis of fatal conditions like sepsis. It could be used by ambulances and hospitals to improve the triage process and save lives.
US households waste nearly a third of the food they acquire
American households waste, on average, almost a third of the food they acquire, according to economists, who say this wasted food has an estimated aggregate value of $240 billion annually. Divided among the nearly 128.6 million U.S. households, this waste could be costing the average household about $1,866 per year.
Bending with the wind, coral spawning linked to ocean environment
A research team has utilized modeling analysis to indicate that environmental factors act as a determinant in the timing of mass spawning.
Ghostly particles detected in condensates of light and matter
Discover 'ghostly' particles and quantum depletion. A new study makes the first observation of 'ghost particles' from Bose-Einstein condensates via 'quantum depletion': particles expelled by interaction-induced quantum fluctuations.
The secret of strong underwater mussel adhesion revealed
Scientists have identified a mechanism of adhesive proteins in a mussel that controls the surface adhesion and cohesion. They substantiated the synergy of molecules in adhesive proteins. Their new discovery is expected to be applied in making stronger underwater bioadhesive than the conventional ones.
Predicting the degradation behavior of advanced medical devices
Polymer materials play a vital role in today's medicine. While many applications demand for long-lasting devices, others benefit from materials that disintegrate once their job is done. The design of such materials largely depends on the capability to predict their degradation behavior. A team of researchers established a method to faster and more reliably predict the degradation of these polymer materials with sophisticated molecular architectures.
Tension between foreign climbers and Sherpas began over 200 years ago
Recent tragedies on Everest have exposed growing resentment felt by some Sherpas towards foreign climbers and the foreign companies profiting from the mountain. One source of dispute has been Sherpa concern that some climbers are not fit enough to cope with the altitude.
How moon jellyfish get about
With their translucent bells, moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) move around the oceans in a very efficient way. Scientists have now used a mathematical model to investigate how these cnidarians manage to use their neural networks to control their locomotion even when they are injured. The results may also contribute to the optimization of underwater robots.
Turtle tracking reveals key feeding grounds
Loggerhead turtles feed in the same places year after year - meaning key locations should be protected, researchers say.
Teens with obesity and PCOS have more 'unhealthy' bacteria
Teens with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have more 'unhealthy' gut bacteria suggesting the microbiome may play a role in the disorder, according to new research.
Unexpected connection between gliomas, neurodegenerative diseases
New basic science and clinical research identifies TAU, the same protein studied in the development of Alzheimer's, as a biomarker for glioma development.
Can a tiny invasive snail help save Latin American coffee?
While conducting fieldwork in Puerto Rico's central mountainous region in 2016, ecologists noticed tiny trails of bright orange snail excrement on the undersurface of coffee leaves afflicted with coffee leaf rust, the crop's most economically important pest.
Technique reveals whether models of patient risk are accurate
Researchers have developed a method to determine whether a clinical risk model's predictions can be trusted for a given patient. The findings could help doctors avoid ineffective or unnecessarily risky treatments for some patients.
Exposure to diesel exhaust particles linked to pneumococcal disease susceptibility
A new study shows that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) can increase an individual's susceptibility to pneumococcal disease.
Poor mental health 'both cause and effect' of school exclusion
Children with mental health needs require urgent support from primary school onwards to avoid exclusion, which can be both cause and effect of poor mental health, new research concludes.
Climate-friendly food choices protect the planet, promote health, reduce health costs
Increased uptake of plant-based diets in New Zealand could substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions while greatly improving population health and saving the healthcare system billions of dollars in the coming decades, according to a new study.
Here, there and everywhere: Large and giant viruses abound globally
Scientists have uncovered a broad diversity of large and giant viruses that belong to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV) supergroup. As a result, virus diversity in this group expanded 10-fold from just 205 genomes, redefining the phylogenetic tree of giant viruses.
OSIRIS-REx completes closest flyover of sample site nightingale
OSIRIS-REx successfully executed a 0.4-mile (620-m) flyover of site Nightingale yesterday as part of the mission's Reconnaissance B phase activities.
Keeping lead out of drinking water when switching disinfectants
Researchers found that the hazards of switching disinfectants in water systems -- increased lead levels -- can be mitigated if the change is done correctly.
What it's like to live without a sense of smell
New research reveals the impact of smell loss. As many as one in 20 people live without smell. But until now there has been little research into the range of emotional and practical impacts it causes. The new study finds that almost every aspect of life is disrupted - from everyday concerns about personal hygiene to a loss of sexual intimacy and the break-down of personal relationships.
Despite less ozone pollution, not all plants benefit
Policies and new technologies have reduced emissions of precursor gases that lead to ozone air pollution, but despite those improvements, the amount of ozone that plants are taking in has not followed the same trend, according to researchers.
Tw writers penned landmark inscriptions in 8th-century BCE Samaria
A new study reveals that only 2 writers penned landmark inscriptions on an 8th-century BCE Samarian ostraca. The discovery illuminates the bureaucratic apparatus of an ancient kingdom of Israel.
What's in Puget sound? New technique casts a wide net for concerning chemicals
Using a new 'non-targeted' approach, researchers screened samples from multiple regions of Puget Sound to look for potentially harmful compounds that might be present.
Surprise discovery shakes up our understanding of gene expression
A group of scientists has uncovered a previously unknown way that our genes are made into reality. Rather than directions going one-way from DNA to RNA to proteins, the latest study shows that RNA itself modulates how DNA is transcribed -- using a chemical process that is increasingly apparent to be vital to biology. The discovery has significant implications for our understanding of human disease and drug design.
Solutions for networking lag in massive IoT devices
Researchers have proposed a system that would use currently underutilized resources in an existing wireless channel to create extra opportunities for lag-free connections. The process, which wouldn't require any additional hardware or wireless spectrum resources, could alleviate traffic backups on networks with many wireless connections, such as those found in smart warehouses and automated factories.
Deep diving scientists discover bubbling CO2 hotspot
Hydrologists diving off the coast of the Philippines have discovered volcanic seeps with some of the highest natural levels of C02 ever recorded. The scientists were working in Verde Island Passage, one of the most diverse marine ecosystems in the world and is home to thriving coral reefs.
Electrochemical method for extracting uranium, and potentially other metal ions, from solution
Fifty years ago, scientists hit upon what they thought could be the next rocket fuel. Carboranes -- molecules composed of boron, carbon and hydrogen atoms clustered together in three-dimensional shapes -- were seen as the possible basis for next-generation propellants due to their ability to release massive amounts of energy when burned.
Coronavirus outbreak in China traced to snakes
Emerging viral infections -- from bird flu to Ebola to Zika infections -- pose major threats to global public health, and understanding their origins can help investigators design defensive strategies against future outbreaks. A new study provides important insights on the potential origins of the most recent outbreak of viral pneumonia in China, which started in the middle of December and now is spreading to Hong Kong, Singapore, Thailand, and Japan.