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Science Daily

Tue, 19 Feb 2019 07:53:01 EST
Great white shark genome decoded
In a major scientific step to understand the biology of this iconic apex predator and sharks in general, the entire genome of the white shark has now been decoded in detail.
Climate change makes summer weather stormier yet more stagnant
Climate change is shifting the energy in the atmosphere that fuels summertime weather, which may lead to stronger thunderstorms and more stagnant conditions for midlatitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere, including North America, Europe, and Asia, a new study finds.
Helping patients breathe during dangerous procedure prevents complications
A new study is showing that using bag-mask ventilation, squeezing air from a bag into the mouth for 60 seconds to help patients' breathing, improves outcomes and could potentially save lives.
Very early marker of cardiac damage triggered by cancer treatment
Researchers have identified a very early marker of cardiac damage in patients undergoing therapy with anthracyclines, a family of drugs commonly used to treat cancer. This finding will enable the early diagnosis of the cardiotoxicity associated with this group of widely used chemotherapy drugs.
Tuberculosis: Commandeering a bacterial 'suicide' mechanism
The bacteria responsible for tuberculosis can be killed by a toxin they produce unless it is neutralized by an antidote protein. The scientists are now seeking to appropriate this 'suicide' mechanism for therapeutic purposes.
DMD: Single CRISPR treatment provides long-term benefits in mice
Researchers have shown that a single systemic treatment using CRISPR genome editing technology can safely and stably correct a genetic disease -- Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) -- for more than a year in mice, despite observed immune responses and alternative gene editing outcomes.
How 3D arrangement of DNA helps perpetuate the species
From fathers to children, the delivery of hereditary information requires the careful packing of DNA in sperm. But just how nature packages this DNA to prepare offspring isn't clear. Using new technology to reveal the 3D organization of DNA in maturing male reproductive cells, scientists revealed a crucial period in development that helps explain how fathers pass on genetic information to future generations.
Researchers find trigger that turns strep infections into flesh-eating disease
Scientists discovered a previously unknown trigger that turns run-of-the-mill strep infections into the flesh-eating disease childbed fever, which strikes postpartum moms and newborns, often leaving victims without limbs. Using an unprecedented approach, they looked at the interplay between the genome, transcriptome and virulence. This generated a massive data set, lending itself to artificial intelligence analysis. Through AI they unexpectedly discovered a new mechanism controlling virulence.
Biodiversity on land is not higher today than in the past, study shows
The rich levels of biodiversity on land seen across the globe today are not a recent phenomenon: diversity on land has been similar for at least the last 60 million years, since soon after the extinction of the dinosaurs.
Depression reversed in male mice by activating gene that helps excite neurons
Directly activating a gene important to exciting our excitatory neurons and associated with major depression may help turn around classic symptoms like social isolation and loss of interest, at least for males, scientists report.
Advancing therapy by measuring the 'games' cancer cells play
Despite rapid advances in targeted therapies for cancer, tumors commonly develop resistance to treatment. When resistance emerges, tumor cells continue to grow unchecked, despite all attempts to slow cancer progression. While mutations in cancer cells significantly affect drug sensitivity, it is increasingly recognized that ecological interactions between cells can also play a role.
Heavy smoking can damage vision
Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day can damage your vision, researchers find.
DNA variants significantly influence body fat distribution
Researchers have identified multiple genetic variants associated with how the body regulates and distributes body-fat tissue. The new findings broaden the understanding of how genes can predispose certain individuals to obesity.
Febrile infants may not need painful tests, antibiotics, hospitalizations
A national research team has derived and validated a new protocol for emergency departments that can determine which infant patients with fevers, age 60 days or younger, are at low risk of significant bacterial infections.
Light-based production of drug-discovery molecules
Chemists have developed a light-based chemical method for cheap and simple production of chemical molecules used in drug discovery, such as muscle relaxants and antimicrobials.
Gearing up for 5G: A miniature, low-cost transceiver for fast, reliable communications
Researchers have designed a 28 GHz transceiver that integrates beamforming with dual-polarized multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) technology. Measuring just 3 mm by 4 mm, this tiny transceiver could help improve performances of fifth-generation cellular network (5G) and Internet of Things (IoT) devices.
More primary care physicians leads to longer life spans
New research shows us just how important primary care physicians are in prolonging our lives. Every 10 additional primary care physicians per 100,000 people in the United States was associated with a 51.5-day increase in life expectancy during the decade from 2005 to 2015, according to a new study.
Hinge morphology of click beetle's latch mechanism
Researchers are studying click beetles to inspire more agile robots.
Parents: Keep medical marijuana dispensaries away from kids
Seven in 10 parents think they should have a say in whether dispensaries are located near their child's school or daycare and most say they should be banned within a certain distance of those facilities.
Physicists pinpoint a simple mechanism that makes bacteria resistant to antibiotics
Physicists have for the first time identified a simple mechanism used by potentially deadly bacteria to fend off antibiotics, a discovery which is providing new insights into how germs adapt and behave at a level of detail never seen before.
Hormone therapy may increase cardiovascular risk during gender transition
People receiving hormone therapy during gender transition had an elevated risk for cardiovascular events, such as strokes, blood clots and heart attacks. Findings underscore the importance of counseling and close monitoring of transgender patients receiving hormone therapy.
Indigenous hunters have positive impacts on food webs in desert Australia
Australia has the highest rate of mammal extinction in the world. Resettlement of indigenous communities resulted in the spread of invasive species, the absence of human-set fires, and a general cascade in the interconnected food web that led to the largest mammalian extinction event ever recorded. In this case, the absence of direct human activity on the landscape may be the cause of the extinctions, according to an anthropologist.
There's a place for us: New research reveals humanity's roles in ecosystems
In two back-to-back symposia a cross-disciplinary cohort of scientists will present the first comprehensive investigations of how humans interacted with plant and animal species in different cultures worldwide through time.
Drug combination may become new standard treatment for advanced kidney cancer
A combination of two drugs -- one of them an immunotherapy agent -- could become a new standard, first-line treatment for patients with metastatic kidney cancer, results from a phase 3 clinical trial suggest.
A hidden source of air pollution? Your daily household tasks
Cooking, cleaning and other routine household activities generate significant levels of volatile and particulate chemicals inside the average home, leading to indoor air quality levels on par with a polluted major city.
Weak spots for Mission to Mars revealed
Researchers are developing a predictive model to help NASA anticipate conflicts and communication breakdowns among crew members and head off problems that could make or break the Mission to Mars.
Tiny fibers create unseen plastic pollution
While the polyester leisure suit was a 1970s mistake, polyester and other synthetic fibers like nylon are still around and are a major contributor to the microplastics load in the environment, according to a materials scientist, who suggests switching to biosynthetic fibers to solve this problem.
Altered data sets can still provide statistical integrity and preserve privacy
Synthetic networks may increase the availability of some data while still protecting individual or institutional privacy, according to a statistician.
Virus-infected bacteria could provide help in the fight against climate change
Understanding the relationship between microbes and viruses is beneficial not only for medical research and practical applications but also in marine biology, say researchers.
Understanding carbon cycle feedbacks to predict climate change at large scale
Researches have identified long-disappeared forests available for restoration across the world. They describe how such an effort, could absorb as much as 135 gigatons of atmospheric carbon.
Children carry evidence of toxins from home flooring and furniture
Children living in homes with all vinyl flooring or flame-retardant chemicals in the sofa have significantly higher concentrations of potentially harmful semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in their blood or urine than children from homes where these materials are not present, according to new research.
How to feed the world by 2050? Recent breakthrough boosts plant growth by 40 percent
Recent advances to address hunger through agricultural advancement have been shown to boost crop growth by 40 percent by creating a shortcut for a glitch that plagues most food crops.
Drinking contexts associated with early onset of alcohol intoxication among adolescents
New research has begun to identify the circumstances by examining relationships between early age of first intoxication (less than 15 years), drinking in different contexts such as one's own home, at friends' homes, or outdoor settings, and problems that arise in those contexts.
Engineered metasurfaces reflect waves in unusual directions
Researchers have developed new metasurfaces for the arbitrary manipulation of reflected waves, essentially breaking classical reflection law to engineer it at will.
PET/CT imaging agent shows promise for better diagnosis of acute venous thromboembolism
Researchers report that a new nuclear medicine tracer may allow better diagnosis of acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). Acute VTE is a disease that includes deep-vein thrombosis and its complication, pulmonary embolism, which can be fatal.
Push-up capacity linked with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease events among men
Active, middle-aged men able to complete more than 40 push-ups had a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes -- including diagnoses of coronary artery disease and major events such as heart failure -- during 10 years of follow-up compared with those who were able to do less than 10 push-ups during the baseline exam.
How do we conserve and restore computer-based art in a changing technological environment?
Just as conservators have developed methods to protect traditional artworks, computer scientists have now created means to safeguard computer- or time-based art by following the same preservation principles.
Diagnosing 'art acne' in Georgia O'Keeffe's paintings
A multidisciplinary team has diagnosed the strange paint disease causing Georgia O'Keeffe's paintings to deteriorate. The micron-sized protrusions are metal soaps, resulting from a chemical reaction between the metal ions and fatty acids commonly used as binder in paints.
Graphene-based wearables for health monitoring, food inspection and night vision
Scientists have developed dozens of new graphene-based prototypes. These technologies aim to turn mobile phones into life saving devices.
Genetic vulnerability to menthol cigarette use
A genetic variant found only in people of African descent significantly increases a smoker's preference for cigarettes containing menthol, a flavor additive. The variant of the MRGPRX4 gene is five to eight times more frequent among smokers who use menthol cigarettes than other smokers. The multi-ethnic study is the first to look across all genes to identify genetic vulnerability to menthol cigarettes.
Drug to rejuvenate muscle cells
Researchers have developed a promising drug that has proven to significantly increase muscle size, strength and metabolic state in aged mice, according to a new study.
Open-science model for drug discovery expands to neurodegenerative diseases
Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis are the newest frontiers for open science drug discovery, a global movement led by academic scientists that puts knowledge sharing and medication affordability ahead of patents and profits.
Hope for fighting disease known as Ebola of frogs
Despite widespread infection, some frog populations are surviving a deadly disease that is the equivalent of humankind's Ebola virus. The reason -- genetic diversity.
The prospects of American strawberries
Researchers have embarked on an academic journey designed to generate an effective guideline essential for research, policy, and marketing strategies for the strawberry industry across the country, and to enable the development of general and region-specific educational and production tools.
What rising seas mean for local economies
High-tide flooding resulting from climate change is already disrupting the economy of Annapolis, Md. As sea levels rise, the impacts are expected to get worse for coastal communities.
OSA patients with excessive daytime sleepiness at greatest risk of cardiovascular disease
Adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who experience excessive sleepiness while awake appear to be at far greater risk for cardiovascular diseases than those without excessive daytime sleepiness, according to new research.
Biologists identify honeybee 'clean' genes known for improving survival
The key to breeding disease-resistant honeybees could lie in a group of genes -- known for controlling hygienic behavior -- that enable colonies to limit the spread of harmful mites and bacteria, according to genomics research. The researchers narrowed in on the 'clean' genes known to improve the colony's chance of survival.
Lithium-air batteries can store energy for cars, houses and industry
Growth in the offer of renewable energy sources will mean increased demand for devices optimal for energy storing.
Children with autism more likely to face maltreatment, study finds
A recent study of 11 counties in Middle Tennessee revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were nearly 2.5 times more likely than children without ASD to be reported to the Child Abuse Hotline by the age of 8.
Brain discovery explains a great mystery of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's
One of the great mysteries of neuroscience may finally have an answer: Scientists have identified a potential explanation for the mysterious death of specific brain cells seen in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases.
New study looks at ways to cut roadkill numbers for small and medium-sized mammals
A study of a stretch of highway in Quebec looks at the effect of road fencing and underground passages on the number of roadkill deaths of small and medium-sized mammals. The study found that roadkill numbers were higher at the ends of road fences, suggesting that they are not long enough to prevent animals from crossing busy roadways.
3D protein structure reveals a new mechanism for future anti-cancer drugs
Researchers have discovered a new mechanism for a class of anti-cancer drugs known as E1 inhibitors. Their findings reveal a novel binding site that will promote drug design of more efficient E1 inhibitors.
First model of mitochondrial epilepsy
Researchers have become the first to describe a model of mitochondrial epilepsy which raises hope for better therapies for patients with this incapacitating condition.Despite the severity of this epilepsy, up to now there have been no animal models available to provide a mechanistic understanding of the condition. That is set to change though as researchers can now explain the important role that astrocytes play in seizure generation.
Happy as a pig in muck?
Photos play an important role when it comes to how agricultural products are seen by consumers. A team of scientists investigated how people perceive and evaluate photos of a pig in different stalls.
Patients' own cells could be the key to treating Crohn's disease
A new technique using patients' own modified cells to treat Crohn's disease has been proven to be effective in experiments using human cells, with a clinical trial of the treatment expected to start in the next six months.
Can we trust scientific discoveries made using machine learning?
Statisticians are cautioning fellow scientists not to make assumptions about the accuracy, uncertainty or reproducibility of scientific discoveries made with today's machine learning models.
Tidal tails: The beginning of the end of an open star cluster
In the course of their life, open star clusters continuously lose stars to their surroundings. The resulting swath of tidal tails provides a glimpse into the evolution and dissolution of a star cluster. Thus far only tidal tails of massive globular clusters and dwarf galaxies have been discovered in the Milky Way system. In open clusters, this phenomenon existed only in theory. Researchers have now finally verified the existence of such a tidal tail in the star cluster closest to the Sun, the Hyades. An analysis of measurements from the Gaia satellite led to the discovery.
Solid-state catalysis: Fluctuations clear the way
Chemists have identified a mechanism that allows molecules to diffuse rapidly on the already crowded surface of a solid-state catalyst - an important capability, especially for efficient catalysis under industrial conditions.
Bioengineers create ultrasmall, light-activated electrode for neural stimulation
Scientists have detailed a less invasive method of neural stimulation that would use an untethered ultrasmall electrode activated by light, a technique that may mitigate damage done by current methods.
Linking sensing to signaling during plant immunity
A new study by researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research (MPIPZ) in Cologne has revealed that a previously unappreciated structural feature underlies the ability of the plant immune molecule EDS1 to provide a timely defense boost against pathogens.